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Marco Ratto
dynare
Commits
055710c9
Commit
055710c9
authored
Jan 10, 2020
by
Johannes Pfeifer
Browse files
Change ordering of optimal policy commands
Moves common planner_objective command to front
parent
7245cb2e
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doc/manual/source/the-model-file.rst
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055710c9
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@@ -8137,6 +8137,234 @@ commitment with ``ramsey_policy``, for optimal policy under discretion
with ``discretionary_policy`` or for optimal simple rule with ``osr``
(also implying commitment).
.. command:: planner_objective MODEL_EXPRESSION ;
|br| This command declares the policy maker objective, for use
with ``ramsey_policy`` or ``discretionary_policy``.
You need to give the one-period objective, not the discounted
lifetime objective. The discount factor is given by the
``planner_discount`` option of ``ramsey_policy`` and
``discretionary_policy``. The objective function can only contain
current endogenous variables and no exogenous ones. This
limitation is easily circumvented by defining an appropriate
auxiliary variable in the model.
With ``ramsey_policy``, you are not limited to quadratic
objectives: you can give any arbitrary nonlinear expression.
With ``discretionary_policy``, the objective function must be quadratic.
Optimal policy under commitment (Ramsey)
----------------------------------------
.. command:: ramsey_model (OPTIONS...);
|br| This command computes the First Order Conditions for maximizing
the policy maker objective function subject to the constraints
provided by the equilibrium path of the private economy.
The planner objective must be declared with the :comm:`planner_objective` command.
This command only creates the expanded model, it doesn’t perform
any computations. It needs to be followed by other instructions to
actually perform desired computations. Examples are calls to ``steady``
to compute the steady state of the Ramsey economy, to ``stoch_simul``
with various approximation orders to conduct stochastic simulations based on
perturbation solutions, to ``estimation`` in order to estimate models
under optimal policy with commitment, and to perfect foresight simulation
routines.
See :ref:`aux-variables`, for an explanation of how Lagrange
multipliers are automatically created.
*Options*
This command accepts the following options:
.. option:: planner_discount = EXPRESSION
Declares or reassigns the discount factor of the central
planner ``optimal_policy_discount_factor``. Default: ``1.0``.
.. option:: planner_discount_latex_name = LATEX_NAME
Sets the LaTeX name of the ``optimal_policy_discount_factor``
parameter.
.. option:: instruments = (VARIABLE_NAME,...)
Declares instrument variables for the computation of the
steady state under optimal policy. Requires a
``steady_state_model`` block or a ``_steadystate.m`` file. See
below.
*Steady state*
Dynare takes advantage of the fact that the Lagrange multipliers
appear linearly in the equations of the steady state of the model
under optimal policy. Nevertheless, it is in general very
difficult to compute the steady state with simply a numerical
guess in ``initval`` for the endogenous variables.
It greatly facilitates the computation, if the user provides an
analytical solution for the steady state (in
``steady_state_model`` block or in a ``_steadystate.m`` file). In
this case, it is necessary to provide a steady state solution
CONDITIONAL on the value of the instruments in the optimal policy
problem and declared with the option ``instruments``. The initial value
of the instrument for steady state finding in this case is set with
``initval``. Note that computing and displaying steady state values
using the ``steady``-command or calls to ``resid`` must come after
the ``ramsey_model`` statement and the ``initval``-block.
Note that choosing the instruments is partly a matter of interpretation and
you can choose instruments that are handy from a mathematical
point of view but different from the instruments you would refer
to in the analysis of the paper. A typical example is choosing
inflation or nominal interest rate as an instrument.
.. block:: ramsey_constraints ;
|br| This block lets you define constraints on the variables in
the Ramsey problem. The constraints take the form of a variable,
an inequality operator (> or <) and a constant.
*Example*
::
ramsey_constraints;
i > 0;
end;
.. command:: evaluate_planner_objective ;
This command computes, displays, and stores the value of the
planner objective function
under Ramsey policy in ``oo_.planner_objective_value``, given the
initial values of the endogenous state variables. If not specified
with ``histval``, they are taken to be at their steady state
values. The result is a 1 by 2 vector, where the first entry
stores the value of the planner objective when the initial
Lagrange multipliers associated with the planner’s problem are set
to their steady state values (see :comm:`ramsey_policy`).
In contrast, the second entry stores the value of the planner
objective with initial Lagrange multipliers of the planner’s
problem set to 0, i.e. it is assumed that the planner exploits its
ability to surprise private agents in the first period of
implementing Ramsey policy. This is the value of implementating
optimal policy for the first time and committing not to
re-optimize in the future.
Because it entails computing at least a second order approximation, the
computation of the planner objective value is skipped with a message when
the model is too large (more than 180 state variables, including lagged
Lagrange multipliers).
.. command:: ramsey_policy [VARIABLE_NAME...];
ramsey_policy (OPTIONS...) [VARIABLE_NAME...];
|br| This command is formally equivalent to the calling sequence
::
ramsey_model;
stoch_simul(order=1);
evaluate_planner_objective;
It computes the first order approximation of the
policy that maximizes the policy maker’s objective function
subject to the constraints provided by the equilibrium path of the
private economy and under commitment to this optimal policy. The
Ramsey policy is computed by approximating the equilibrium system
around the perturbation point where the Lagrange multipliers are
at their steady state, i.e. where the Ramsey planner acts as if
the initial multipliers had been set to 0 in the distant past,
giving them time to converge to their steady state
value. Consequently, the optimal decision rules are computed
around this steady state of the endogenous variables and the
Lagrange multipliers.
This first order approximation to the optimal policy conducted by
Dynare is not to be confused with a naive linear quadratic
approach to optimal policy that can lead to spurious welfare
rankings (see *Kim and Kim (2003)*). In the latter, the optimal
policy would be computed subject to the first order approximated
FOCs of the private economy. In contrast, Dynare first computes
the FOCs of the Ramsey planner’s problem subject to the nonlinear
constraints that are the FOCs of the private economy and only then
approximates these FOCs of planner’s problem to first
order. Thereby, the second order terms that are required for a
second-order correct welfare evaluation are preserved.
Note that the variables in the list after the ``ramsey_policy``
command can also contain multiplier names. In that case, Dynare
will for example display the IRFs of the respective multipliers
when ``irf>0``.
The planner objective must be declared with the :comm:`planner_objective` command.
*Options*
This command accepts all options of ``stoch_simul``, plus:
.. option:: planner_discount = EXPRESSION
See :opt:`planner_discount <planner_discount = EXPRESSION>`.
.. option:: instruments = (VARIABLE_NAME,...)
Declares instrument variables for the computation of the
steady state under optimal policy. Requires a
``steady_state_model`` block or a ``_steadystate.m`` file. See
below.
Note that only a first order approximation of the optimal Ramsey
policy is available, leading to a second-order accurate welfare
ranking (i.e. ``order=1`` must be specified).
*Output*
This command generates all the output variables of
``stoch_simul``. For specifying the initial values for the
endogenous state variables (except for the Lagrange multipliers),
see :bck:`histval`.
*Steady state*
See :comm:`Ramsey steady state <ramsey_model>`.
Optimal policy under discretion
-------------------------------
.. command:: discretionary_policy [VARIABLE_NAME...];
discretionary_policy (OPTIONS...) [VARIABLE_NAME...];
|br| This command computes an approximation of the optimal policy
under discretion. The algorithm implemented is essentially an LQ
solver, and is described by *Dennis (2007)*.
You should ensure that your model is linear and your objective is
quadratic. Also, you should set the ``linear`` option of the
``model`` block.
*Options*
This command accepts the same options than ``ramsey_policy``, plus:
.. option:: discretionary_tol = NON-NEGATIVE DOUBLE
Sets the tolerance level used to assess convergence of the
solution algorithm. Default: ``1e-7``.
.. option:: maxit = INTEGER
Maximum number of iterations. Default: ``3000``.
Optimal Simple Rules (OSR)
--------------------------
...
...
@@ -8390,236 +8618,6 @@ Optimal Simple Rules (OSR)
``M_.endo_names``.
Optimal policy under commitment (Ramsey)
----------------------------------------
.. command:: ramsey_model (OPTIONS...);
|br| This command computes the First Order Conditions for maximizing
the policy maker objective function subject to the constraints
provided by the equilibrium path of the private economy.
The planner objective must be declared with the :comm:`planner_objective` command.
This command only creates the expanded model, it doesn’t perform
any computations. It needs to be followed by other instructions to
actually perform desired computations. Examples are calls to ``steady``
to compute the steady state of the Ramsey economy, to ``stoch_simul``
with various approximation orders to conduct stochastic simulations based on
perturbation solutions, to ``estimation`` in order to estimate models
under optimal policy with commitment, and to perfect foresight simulation
routines.
See :ref:`aux-variables`, for an explanation of how Lagrange
multipliers are automatically created.
*Options*
This command accepts the following options:
.. option:: planner_discount = EXPRESSION
Declares or reassigns the discount factor of the central
planner ``optimal_policy_discount_factor``. Default: ``1.0``.
.. option:: planner_discount_latex_name = LATEX_NAME
Sets the LaTeX name of the ``optimal_policy_discount_factor``
parameter.
.. option:: instruments = (VARIABLE_NAME,...)
Declares instrument variables for the computation of the
steady state under optimal policy. Requires a
``steady_state_model`` block or a ``_steadystate.m`` file. See
below.
*Steady state*
Dynare takes advantage of the fact that the Lagrange multipliers
appear linearly in the equations of the steady state of the model
under optimal policy. Nevertheless, it is in general very
difficult to compute the steady state with simply a numerical
guess in ``initval`` for the endogenous variables.
It greatly facilitates the computation, if the user provides an
analytical solution for the steady state (in
``steady_state_model`` block or in a ``_steadystate.m`` file). In
this case, it is necessary to provide a steady state solution
CONDITIONAL on the value of the instruments in the optimal policy
problem and declared with the option ``instruments``. The initial value
of the instrument for steady state finding in this case is set with
``initval``. Note that computing and displaying steady state values
using the ``steady``-command or calls to ``resid`` must come after
the ``ramsey_model`` statement and the ``initval``-block.
Note that choosing the instruments is partly a matter of interpretation and
you can choose instruments that are handy from a mathematical
point of view but different from the instruments you would refer
to in the analysis of the paper. A typical example is choosing
inflation or nominal interest rate as an instrument.
.. block:: ramsey_constraints ;
|br| This block lets you define constraints on the variables in
the Ramsey problem. The constraints take the form of a variable,
an inequality operator (> or <) and a constant.
*Example*
::
ramsey_constraints;
i > 0;
end;
.. command:: evaluate_planner_objective ;
This command computes, displays, and stores the value of the
planner objective function
under Ramsey policy in ``oo_.planner_objective_value``, given the
initial values of the endogenous state variables. If not specified
with ``histval``, they are taken to be at their steady state
values. The result is a 1 by 2 vector, where the first entry
stores the value of the planner objective when the initial
Lagrange multipliers associated with the planner’s problem are set
to their steady state values (see :comm:`ramsey_policy`).
In contrast, the second entry stores the value of the planner
objective with initial Lagrange multipliers of the planner’s
problem set to 0, i.e. it is assumed that the planner exploits its
ability to surprise private agents in the first period of
implementing Ramsey policy. This is the value of implementating
optimal policy for the first time and committing not to
re-optimize in the future.
Because it entails computing at least a second order approximation, the
computation of the planner objective value is skipped with a message when
the model is too large (more than 180 state variables, including lagged
Lagrange multipliers).
.. command:: ramsey_policy [VARIABLE_NAME...];
ramsey_policy (OPTIONS...) [VARIABLE_NAME...];
|br| This command is formally equivalent to the calling sequence
::
ramsey_model;
stoch_simul(order=1);
evaluate_planner_objective;
It computes the first order approximation of the
policy that maximizes the policy maker’s objective function
subject to the constraints provided by the equilibrium path of the
private economy and under commitment to this optimal policy. The
Ramsey policy is computed by approximating the equilibrium system
around the perturbation point where the Lagrange multipliers are
at their steady state, i.e. where the Ramsey planner acts as if
the initial multipliers had been set to 0 in the distant past,
giving them time to converge to their steady state
value. Consequently, the optimal decision rules are computed
around this steady state of the endogenous variables and the
Lagrange multipliers.
This first order approximation to the optimal policy conducted by
Dynare is not to be confused with a naive linear quadratic
approach to optimal policy that can lead to spurious welfare
rankings (see *Kim and Kim (2003)*). In the latter, the optimal
policy would be computed subject to the first order approximated
FOCs of the private economy. In contrast, Dynare first computes
the FOCs of the Ramsey planner’s problem subject to the nonlinear
constraints that are the FOCs of the private economy and only then
approximates these FOCs of planner’s problem to first
order. Thereby, the second order terms that are required for a
second-order correct welfare evaluation are preserved.
Note that the variables in the list after the ``ramsey_policy``
command can also contain multiplier names. In that case, Dynare
will for example display the IRFs of the respective multipliers
when ``irf>0``.
The planner objective must be declared with the :comm:`planner_objective` command.
*Options*
This command accepts all options of ``stoch_simul``, plus:
.. option:: planner_discount = EXPRESSION
See :opt:`planner_discount <planner_discount = EXPRESSION>`.
.. option:: instruments = (VARIABLE_NAME,...)
Declares instrument variables for the computation of the
steady state under optimal policy. Requires a
``steady_state_model`` block or a ``_steadystate.m`` file. See
below.
Note that only a first order approximation of the optimal Ramsey
policy is available, leading to a second-order accurate welfare
ranking (i.e. ``order=1`` must be specified).
*Output*
This command generates all the output variables of
``stoch_simul``. For specifying the initial values for the
endogenous state variables (except for the Lagrange multipliers),
see :bck:`histval`.
*Steady state*
See :comm:`Ramsey steady state <ramsey_model>`.
Optimal policy under discretion
-------------------------------
.. command:: discretionary_policy [VARIABLE_NAME...];
discretionary_policy (OPTIONS...) [VARIABLE_NAME...];
|br| This command computes an approximation of the optimal policy
under discretion. The algorithm implemented is essentially an LQ
solver, and is described by *Dennis (2007)*.
You should ensure that your model is linear and your objective is
quadratic. Also, you should set the ``linear`` option of the
``model`` block.
*Options*
This command accepts the same options than ``ramsey_policy``, plus:
.. option:: discretionary_tol = NON-NEGATIVE DOUBLE
Sets the tolerance level used to assess convergence of the
solution algorithm. Default: ``1e-7``.
.. option:: maxit = INTEGER
Maximum number of iterations. Default: ``3000``.
.. command:: planner_objective MODEL_EXPRESSION ;
|br| This command declares the policy maker objective, for use
with ``ramsey_policy`` or ``discretionary_policy``.
You need to give the one-period objective, not the discounted
lifetime objective. The discount factor is given by the
``planner_discount`` option of ``ramsey_policy`` and
``discretionary_policy``. The objective function can only contain
current endogenous variables and no exogenous ones. This
limitation is easily circumvented by defining an appropriate
auxiliary variable in the model.
With ``ramsey_policy``, you are not limited to quadratic
objectives: you can give any arbitrary nonlinear expression.
With ``discretionary_policy``, the objective function must be quadratic.
Sensitivity and identification analysis
=======================================
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